Introduction to ICT Resources-Disk Cleanup Utilities for Windows

Windows Disk Cleanup Tool

Disk Cleanup tool, part of Windows, will perform a search on the hard disk for files that can be deleted from your computer without affecting its functionality or your personal files:

How to Run Disk Cleanup Utility 

  1. Press Windows + R Button.
  2. Type cleanmgr
  3. Click OK or  press Enter

Introduction to ICT Resources- PC Hardware

Computer - Hardware


Hardware represents the physical and tangible components of a computer, i.e. the components that can be seen and touched.
Examples of Hardware are the following −
  • Input devices − keyboard, mouse, etc.
  • Output devices − printer, monitor, etc.
  • Secondary storage devices − Hard disk, CD, DVD, etc.
  • Internal components − CPU, motherboard, RAM, etc.
Computer Hardware

Relationship between Hardware and Software

  • Hardware and software are mutually dependent on each other. Both of them must work together to make a computer produce a useful output.
  • Software cannot be utilized without supporting hardware.
  • Hardware without a set of programs to operate upon cannot be utilized and is useless.
  • To get a particular job done on the computer, relevant software should be loaded into the hardware.
  • Hardware is a one-time expense.
  • Software development is very expensive and is a continuing expense.
  • Different software applications can be loaded on a hardware to run different jobs.
  • A software acts as an interface between the user and the hardware.
  • If the hardware is the 'heart' of a computer system, then the software is its 'soul'. Both are complementary to each other.

Introduction to ICT Resources-Operating System

Software

Software is a set of programs, which is designed to perform a well-defined function. A program is a sequence of instructions written to solve a particular problem.
There are two types of software −
  • System Software
  • Application Software

System Software

The system software is a collection of programs designed to operate, control, and extend the processing capabilities of the computer itself. System software is generally prepared by the computer manufacturers. These software products comprise of programs written in low-level languages, which interact with the hardware at a very basic level. System software serves as the interface between the hardware and the end users.
Some examples of system software are Operating System, Compilers, Interpreter, Assemblers, etc.
Application Software
Here is a list of some of the most prominent features of a system software −
  • Close to the system
  • Fast in speed
  • Difficult to design
  • Difficult to understand
  • Difficult to manipulate
  • Generally written in low-level language

Application Software

Application software products are designed to satisfy a particular need of a particular environment. All software applications prepared in the computer lab can come under the category of Application software.
Application software may consist of a single program, such as Microsoft's notepad for writing and editing a simple text. It may also consist of a collection of programs, often called a software package, which work together to accomplish a task, such as a spreadsheet package.
Examples of Application software are the following −
  • Payroll Software
  • Student Record Software
  • Inventory Management Software
  • Income Tax Software
  • Railways Reservation Software
  • Microsoft Office Suite Software
  • Microsoft Word
  • Microsoft Excel
  • Microsoft PowerPoint etc.

Operating System

The Operating System is a program with the following features −
  • An operating system is a program that acts as an interface between the software and the computer hardware.
  • It is an integrated set of specialized programs used to manage overall resources and operations of the computer.
  • It is a specialized software that controls and monitors the execution of all other programs that reside in the computer, including application programs and other system software.
Operating System

Objectives of Operating System

The objectives of the operating system are −
  • To make the computer system convenient to use in an efficient manner.
  • To hide the details of the hardware resources from the users.
  • To provide users a convenient interface to use the computer system.
  • To act as an intermediary between the hardware and its users, making it easier for the users to access and use other resources.
  • To manage the resources of a computer system.
  • To keep track of who is using which resource, granting resource requests, and mediating conflicting requests from different programs and users.
  • To provide efficient and fair sharing of resources among users and programs.

Characteristics of Operating System

Here is a list of some of the most prominent characteristic features of Operating Systems −
  • Memory Management − Keeps track of the primary memory, i.e. what part of it is in use by whom, what part is not in use, etc. and allocates the memory when a process or program requests it.
  • Processor Management − Allocates the processor (CPU) to a process and deallocates the processor when it is no longer required.
  • Device Management − Keeps track of all the devices. This is also called I/O controller that decides which process gets the device, when, and for how much time.
  • File Management − Allocates and de-allocates the resources and decides who gets the resources.
  • Security − Prevents unauthorized access to programs and data by means of passwords and other similar techniques.
  • Job Accounting − Keeps track of time and resources used by various jobs and/or users.
  • Control Over System Performance − Records delays between the request for a service and from the system.
  • Interaction with the Operators − Interaction may take place via the console of the computer in the form of instructions. The Operating System acknowledges the same, does the corresponding action, and informs the operation by a display screen.
  • Error-detecting Aids − Production of dumps, traces, error messages, and other debugging and error-detecting methods.
  • Coordination Between Other Software and Users − Coordination and assignment of compilers, interpreters, assemblers, and other software to the various users of the computer systems.